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VNA new comers handbook

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Vikings North AmericaMember Handbook

Table of Contents
1 -Mission Statement
2-Making Your Kit
38-Knot Tying
46-Chopping Wood
48-Fire Safety
55-Starting a Fire
60-Food Sanitation
64-First Aid
74-Basic Tools
78-Constructing a Wedge Tent
81-Constructing a Geteld Tent
87-Constructing a Lean-To
89-Constructing a Shelter
91-Constructing a Fire Box
92-Constructing a Cooking Tripod
94-Constructing a Cooking Pot
97-Constructing a Skillet
98-Constructing a Stool
99-Constructing a Bench
100-Constructing a Table
101-Constructing a Chest
103-Making a Leather Water-
Mission Statement
The overall aim of Vikings North America is to improve the understanding and knowledge, both of members of the Society and of the public in general, of all aspects of Viking Age life (793-1066 A.D.) primarily focused on the 10thcentury. To this end, Vikings North America is involved in staging shows and displays for members of the public. We constantly strive to improve the accuracy, authenticity and professionalism of our appearance and performance in order to educate through entertainment.
The intent of this handbook is to serve as a guide for newcomers to make their own basic kit, show the fundamentals of spear combat, basic safety and how to construct all the implements used in a village encampment. Please note that everything shown in this guide shows only the basic entry level of kit and equipment and further embellishments are encouraged as the individuales construction skills improve. This guide also serves to present a standard of uniformity that one can expect to see across the organization with regard to authenticity and appearance.
Making Your Kit
Kit refers to the clothing and accessories worn that help the reenactor to portray their persona as either a Viking or Saxon (Gaelic and Norman are not covered in this guide as they are advanced kits and you should see your group Authenticity Officer for more information).
Below is a checklist of what a basic Viking and Saxon male kit should include:
Wool KyrtleX X
Linen Under KyrtleXX
Linen or Wool TrousersX X
Low Ankle BootXX
Four Panel HatX
Phrygian HatX
Knife or SeaxXX
CloakX X
This checklist is for a person portraying a freeman of either Ceorl or Karl class and a person wishing to portray a Thrall requires only a knee length linen tunic, a waist tie and may be barefooted.
Female clothing requires two ankle length kirtles one linen, one wool; shoes, a waist tie of either tablet woven braid or braided yarn and a kerchief to cover the head.
Manufacture Of The Gusseted Kyrtle
Cut a rectangle of cloth (A) to form a basic tabard; shoulder width and knee length, front and rear. Fold the strip in half and mark out the neckline. Next, cut out the sleeves (B & C) and skirt gussets (D & E & F & G). The
sleeves need to be as long as your arm, cuff to shoulder. The sleeve must be wide enough to put your arm in
easily, a good tip is to make the sleeve width as wide as the tabard, see figure 3. Cut out the neck aperture and
sew in the skirt gussets. The sleeve off cuts form the gussets and are sewn in, one to the front, rear and to each
side. The kyrtle is now basically complete. Remember to add about 1/2" or l cm. on all lengths for hems and seams.
Manufacture Of Trousers
Trousers are best made from a pattern, and the best way to make a pattern is to use an old pair of trousers that still fit you. Cut the trousers into two halves round the crutch, then cut the two legs up the inside and lay out flat. You should now have two large panels similar to those in figure below. If you donet have old trousers for an example then modify pattern below to fit your own measurements. (A) to (B) is half your waist measurement, (G) to (H) is your outside leg (waist to heel), (B) to (C) is half your crutch measurement and (C) to (E) is your inside leg dimension. Add about ." or l cm. all round for seams and hems. Sew the two panels together, the two edges (B-C) for the back of the crutch, and (A-D) to complete the crutch. Otherwise this seam can be left open or a flap inserted. Sew up the insides of the legs, seams (C-E) to (D-F). The trousers are now nearly complete, see figure 4b. Belt loops can be added, or else a cord passed through the hem at the waist. Remember to use linen or wool fabric and earth tones are recommended.
Winnagas or Puttees
The are leg bindings wrapped around the leg from the ankle to the knee and are worn to draw in loose trousers and to provide additional warmth and protection to the leg. An easy way to make winnigas is to take a 8e X 7. strip of wool and fold it so that it is now 3-1/2. wide. Then sew the two 8e long sides together to form a long tube. Next turn the tube right side out and fold in the ends to finish off the hem. Your winnigas are now complete and ready for wear.
Shoes were worn by most anyone who could afford them, although the poorer people or thralls would go bare foot. The shoe shown on the next page is a low ankle boot and of a type that was common throughout both Viking and Saxon lands.
Begin by tracing the pattern on the next page onto 10 ounce vegetable tanned leather, adjusting the pattern so points C,D and E correspond to the size of your foot and increase the pattern by about .. to account for the seams. Ensure that the open ended side of points B and C are long enough so that they too have a .. overlap. Once your pattern is traced cut it out and turn it over , mirror image, to use as the pattern for the other foot. Next punch a hole every .. on all sides that are to be sewn and stitch together using a saddle stitch as shown below. Now that all seams have been sewn turn the shoe right side out so that the seams are no on the inside. Now cut six sets of slits around the top edge of the shoe as shown on the next page and insert a leather thong to serve as a shoe lace.
Viking Age belts ranged from .. .2. in width and had throat, buckle and strap end . To make your belt begin by taking a metal \D. ring appropriately sized to the width of your belt . Next take a nail, cut off the head and bend onto the \D. ring to make the buckle and catch pin. For your belt throat take a 4. long piece of metal the width of your belt and bend it in two, drill a hole .. in from the folded end and using tin snips cut out the slot for the catch pin. Once completed insert the buckle and catch pin into the belt throat and slide the belt throat onto the leather belt. Next drill three hole s in the belt throat and rivet it to the belt. For the strap end take a piece of metal the same size as the belt throat and bend it in two, insert the leather belt and drill and rivet the two together. Using tin snips trim the corners of the strap end so that they are rounded off, then take a file and smooth out any rough edges.
The circular pouch was common throughout Europe during the Viking Age and is simple to make. Begin by cutting a 10. diameter circle of 2 -3 ounce leather. Next punch sixteen holes around the edge and insert a leather thong to serve as a drawstring. Tie the leather thong off with a double overhand knot and draw the pouch closed to complete. Ensure that the drawstring is long enough to tie onto the belt.
Shoulder Bag
A shoulder bag is often used to carry miscellaneous items such as combs, bowls, spoons, and drinking vessels. To make a should bag start off with a piece of linen measuring 12. X 28., fold the bottom 12. up so that you have what will be a 12. 12. pocket and a remaining 4. X 12. flap. Sew up the seams and hem the edge of the flap and the lip of the pocket then turn the bag right side out. Next take a piece of linen measuring 4. X 54. and fold it in two so that it measures 2. X 54. and sew up the seam then turn it out so that the seam is on the inside forming a long tube. Now fold the ends of the tube into the tube and stitch tube to the top of the bag attaching the strap to the side where the seams are. Now sew a button hole centered on the flap and take a 12. piece of leather cord or jute twine and sew it to the lip of the pouch to secure the flap of the bag by passing the tie through the button hole and then tie it off to fasten the flap.
Four Panel Hat
Trace the pattern and cut out four copies from a newspaper. Lay these out on the suede side of your sheepskin. Be as economical as possible, with careful laying out you can get three or four caps from one skin. Draw round the patterns with a pen then cut inside the marking out lines.
Sew the pieces together starting at the pointed end of the pattern and working down to the brim. Ideally you should sew it from the woolly side then turn it inside out, but you may find that the wool tends to catch in the thread, so you may need to sew from the suede side of the skin.
Trim off the excess on the bottom turn up the brim so that the wool shows on the brow.
Phrygian Hat
Trace the pattern onto wool and cut out two pieces. Sew the two pieces together with a 1. allotment for the seams. Then turn the hat right side out and sew the hem on the rim of the hat. Next wet the hat and shape it so that the tip is drawn up to the top and droops over as shown in the picture below. Wear the hat until it dries and takes shape
Knife or Seax
The Knife or Seax was a common tool used by man and woman alike.
Step 1. Take 1/8. X 1. flat stock steel and cut out the shape of your knife, top pattern for Vikings, bottom for Saxons using a jigsaw with a metal cutting blade. The tang should be 4. long and taper to a point.
Step 2. Using a grinder or metal file to put a 15 degree beveled edge on the knife blank.
Step 3. Using coal fire with air supply or a welding torch heat the blade until it glows red or about 1400 degrees Fahrenheit. Remove it using metal tongs or pliers and quench it in motor oil (this will catch on fire , have a lid for the container to smother out the fire). This adds carbon content to the blade. Do this 2-3 times.
Step 4. Wash your blade blank with soap and water, then reheat the blade to 1400 degrees and quench in water; this hardens the blade.
Step 5. Heat the blade until blue or about 600 degrees and let air cool; this tempers the blade.
Step 6. Take a 5. straight piece of deer or elk antler that has cured and dried out. Boil it in water until the porous center becomes spongy push it onto the tang and let air cool.
Step 7. Use a sharpening stone to hone the blade and put on the final edge.
Knife or Seax Sheath
The Knife or Seax was worn suspended either horizontally from the waist with two straps or suspended vertically with a single strap.
Step 1. Take vegetable tanned leather and cut out a piece 2-1/4 times the width of the blade and long enough to reach from half way down the handle to 1. past the tip and soak the leather in water.
Step 2. Cut two .. strips of 16 gauge sheet metal the same length as the leather and drill a hole at one end the size of the rivets you will be using.
Step 3. Wrap the wet leather around the blade and half way up the handle and pull until the leather forms to the shape of the blade.
Step 4. Clamp the two metal strips onto the leather and drill through the hole in the end of the splint and leather and rivet together. Cut two .. X 10. strips of leather to use as suspension straps and drill and rivet the two straps in the middle of the splints and finish it off with one more rivet at the tip of the sheath joining the metal splints to the leather.
Step 5. Using a razor knife cut off any excess leather protruding beyond the splints.
*Note: Make the Seax Sheath so that the blade rests upside down, blade towards the top to prevent excess wear on the sheath.
The cloak came in various design but the rectangular cloak was the most common and was used by man and woman alike for protection from the cold.
Take two pieces of wool fabric measuring in width the distance between both hands when arms are fully extended and the length measuring from your shoulder to somewhere between below the knee to the calf and sew three sides together. Then turn the cloak right side out like a pillow case and fold in the open seam and sew it up using g wool yarn. Next place the cloak around your shoulders and pinch it close so that it is not too tight around the neck and mark the pinch point with chalk. Cut six 20. lengths of yarn and tie knot on one end and using a needle run three lengths of yarn through the cloak at each pinch point and braid the three strands together and tie off with an overhand knot. These ties will be used to fasten the cloak around the shoulders.
Cloak Pin
Cloak pins are used to fasten the cloak around the shoulders.
A cloak pin may be made by taking a bone which has been cured and splintering it into lengths. Take a 4. length with a .. diameter of bone and drill hole at one end . Using a razor knife carve the other end into a point. Now take sand paper and sand the cloak pin smooth and pass a strip of leather cord through the hole to be used to tie off the cloak pin .
To fasten your cloak, hold it and stretch from arm to arm and suspended above the shoulders, then take the non-dominant hand and fold the cloak to the shoulder of you r dominant hand and secure the cloak in place by inserting the cloak pin and then tie the leather thong in a figure 8 pattern as shown below.
Pin at Shoulder
The basic Germanic warrior, whether Viking or Saxon, fought with the Spear. It was considered to be a noble weapon for it was the weapon of choice by Odin and it was used by rich and poor alike. But most important of all, it was the mark of a freeman and was the method by which he maintained his freedom.
The basic warrior beginning combat in Vikings North America is highly encouraged for the above reason to learn to fight with a spear first.
The basic items of a warrior are as follows:
-Helm, either a period accurate helmet or a leather or steel hard hat concealed by a hat.
-Armored Gloves
-Seax or Knife, blunted for combat.
-Round Shield
-Spear or other weapon such as axe, sword or bow.
Hard-Hat Helm Insert
Even though the head is not a target in our combat system accidents may happen, so it is essential that all warriors have on their personal protective equipment to prevent injury.
Using the pattern below cut out two patterns from 16 gauge sheet metal using a jigsaw with a metal cutting blade. Next using a dishing stump and a planishing stake form the two halves so that when placed together they form to the curvature of your head. Drill a hole every inch along the top seam and rivet the two halves together. Drill a hole along the bottom rim on each side and attach a leather thong to serve as a chin strap. Finally cut two patterns from the pattern below out of felt and sew them together to serve as a liner and cover the hard hat with either a four panel hat or phrygian hat to conceal the hard-hat.
Combat GlovesGloves are necessary because the hand will get hit from time to time, without the armored padding bones could be broken.Armored Glove -begin by taking a pair of leather work gloves without an elastic band or draw string. Then cut 1. wide strips of 10-15 ounce leather measured to the corresponding length for the following areas:
-Wrist -Four Fingers
-Thumb-Inside of ThumbNow using a leather punch, punch holes in your strips of leather and sew them onto the glove as shown below. Repeat process for the other glove.Padded Glove -begin by taking a pair of leather work gloves without an elastic band or draw string. Then take two neoprene mouse pads and draw the pattern of your hand onto the mouse pad and cut it out. Then insert the mouse pad into the glove and sew the insert to the glove along the wrist portion. Be sure to place the fabric side of the neoprene insert face down so that it will rest against the skin. This will aid in putting the glove on and taking them off.
Round Shield
The round shield was the dominant shield type used throughout the Viking Age and served as the primary defense for a warrior.
Begin by cutting a 30. diameter shield blank out of .. thick plywood, then cut a hole out of the center of the shield the diameter of the width of your fist in combat gloves. Next to make your shield boss cut out an 8. disc from 16 gauge sheet metal using a jigsaw with metal cutting blade. Then using a dishing stump form a bowl in the metal disc and then turn it over and hammer out a .. flange around the shield boss. Use the planishing stake to smooth out any dimples and drill four evenly spaced holes in the flange of the shield boss. Place the shield boss over the hole in the center of your shield blank and drill four holes in the shield blank based off of the shield boss. Cut a 8. piece of 1. X 1/8. flat stock steel to serve as the handle and drill two holes corresponding to the shield boss into the handle. Now rivet the shield boss, shield blank and handle together. Wrap the handle with leather cord and tie it off to cushion the handle. Finish the shield off by adding a rawhide rim which can be done by soaking rawhide dog chews in water to soften them up, cutting them into 3. wide strips and using .. tacks secure the rawhide to the rim of the shield and paint the face of your shield accordingly.
The Spear is a weapon common to all warriors and is simple and inexpensive to produce.
Begin by taking a piece of 1/8. X 3. flat stock steel and trace and cut out the pattern shown below using a jigsaw with a fine tooth metal cutting blade. Then take a ball peen hammer and hammer the spear socket, butting it together so that you should have a one inch opening. Next file the spearhead so that the edges of the blade are rounded off and free of burrs. Take a 1. diameter by 5e hardwood broom handle (this will be made of either hickory or ash) and shape the threaded end so that it can be inserted into the spearhead. Once fitted, drill a hole through the spearhead and shaft and rivet them together. Measure the spear and ensure that it does not exceed 5e 6. in length, then trim the pole accordingly.
Combat Safety
When participating in live steel combat within Vikings North America, one must always remember that safety is a must and that everyone has the responsibility to enforce safety standards in order that combat displays may be safe and fun for all.
Target Areas
Warriors are allowed to aim for any part of the body and legs. Which include below the neck (i.e. from below the collar bone) to above the knee;
excluding hands, elbows, forearms, upper arms and groin. The chest is a legitimate target for both sexes. Shots and hits to the shoulder are within the Target Area and should always be taken to discourage opponents from
aiming closer to the head. Hits from Arrows and Shot to the upper legs
are Valid Hits and should be taken to discourage the Archer/Slinger from aiming higher, which will reduce the risk of the Target Warrior being injured in the face.
Off Target Areas
It is forbidden to deliberately land a blow to the Off Target Area, i.e.:
the knees, shins, calves, feet, elbows, hands, forearms, upper arms, groin, neck or head. Any blow to the head or neck, however well-controlled or how good the opponents protection maybe, results in the offending Warrior being defeated. He/she should then allow themselves to be \killed. by their opponent. Hits to other Off Target Areas maybe ignored, but if taken in view of the audience, should be acted out as a wound before continuing with the fight. When involved in combat with mounted warriors, the legs of the rider are off-target areas, because of the very high risk of injury to the horse.
Note: any hits to the upper arm should be acted out. Such as losing use of the arm, but the hit does not count as a valid hit for a kill. Such hits to the upper arm if used in a show should be limited to cuts only.
Forbidden blows
Thrusts -Thrusts to any part of the leg or Off Target Areas are forbidden. Thrusts to the Target Areas are Valid Hits but must be strictly Controlled, the Thrusting arm must not be locked.
Attacks to the Head -Hits to the head are normally forbidden. Attacks to the head should, however, be taught and may be used in a Scripted performance between two experienced Warriors. Such attacks should be well Telegraphed and may only contact with the helmet provided the shot has been rehearsed and approved of by both Warriorse Training Thegns.
Hooking -The Hooking of any part of a warriores limbs or body with a Spear, Hand Axe or Long Axe is forbidden.
Weapons Specifications
Helmet -The minimum requirement is a steel or hardened
leather skull cap which may be concealed within an authentic hat.
This must be safe for the wearer and their opponent, and must be
well secured to prevent its loss during combat.
Gloves -The minimum requirement is stiff leather-backed gloves or appropriately padded gloves that give protection to the hands and fingers. These must be safe for the wearer and their opponent.
Shield -Shields should be no bigger than three inches past the
elbow when held against the arm by a centre grip. Shields with a
metal rim should be kept free from burrs and have rounded edges.
All other Shields must have a leather or rawhide rim.
Sword and Knife -edges should have a minimum thickness of 2mm and be blunted. In section this should be an arc of 180or shallower at 2mm diameter. An arc more elliptical than a semi-circle will be deemed sharp. Points should taper down to no less than 180arc (or shallower) with a diameter of 18mm diameter i.e. the size of a U.S. currency dime. A knife of 25.4 cm (10.) blade length or less may have a point comprising of a diameter of 10mm (0.3942) with an arc of 180or shallower.
Spears -of a 3mm thickness should have a 180or shallower arc of a 2.45cm diameter i.e. the size of a U.S. currency quarter or have a bulbous point. Spear length for a single handed spear is limited 5e 6. and 7e 6. for a two handed long spear.
Hand axes -should have an edge of 3mm thickness with a 180arc (in section) or shallower.
Long Axes-two handed axes should have an edge of 4mm thickness with a 180arc (in section) or shallower and not longer than 5e 6..
Combat Stance -begin with the fighter with his feet shoulder width apart. Shield should be held firmly about 13.-18. from the body and canted slightly forward. The spear should be held poised for attack in either the under-arm or over-arm position.
Attack Stance .like the combat stance above, but the foot of the weapon hand is about a half step forward and the foot of the shield hand is about a half step backwards.
Defense Stance .again like the combat stance, but the foot of the weapon hand about a half step backwards and the foot of the shield hand about a half step forward.
Advancing -when advancing in combat, the warrior may move in one of two ways: first there is passing thru in which the trail foot passes the lead foot as in normal walking; the other method is the foot shuffle in which the trail foot is slid across the ground until it reaches the heel of the lead foot, then the lead foot steps forward completing the advancement. The first technique provides the fastest advance with the danger of being easily knocked off balance mid-stride; the second technique is slower but provides greater stability and is best used when grappling.
Spear Grip .the spear is to be gripped firmly with the fingers wrapped around the spear shaft and the thumb placed along the shaft for control purposes. The spear should be held somewhere between half-way to the last two-thirds of the spear shaft and positioned so that the spear blade is vertical.
Under-arm .like the spear grip listed above, however the arm and elbow are bent at a 90 degree angle and the spear held at waist height. The spear shaft should be held so that it is wedged between the elbow and the torso to act as a contact point to increase stability and accuracy.
Over-arm -as listed with spear grip, but with the arm raised overhead with the elbow in 90 degree angle poised to strike.
Control .a spear thrust creates a large amount of energy all focused on the tip of the spear. It is for this reason the warrior must exhibit control in the force of all thrusts; which is done by extending the arm and spear as one unit until you feel it make contact with the opponent then quickly withdraw the spear rather than pushing through. It is critical to remember to never lock the arm when executing a thrust because this will cause your thrust to generate too much force and potentially injure your opponent.
Attack # 1-begin the attack in the over-arm position by first thrusting the spear to the left side of the opponentes chest aiming for the pectoral muscle. Then withdraw the thrust once the spear makes contact with the opponent as in Control. Once the attack is executed reset yourself so that you are positioned to attack again.
Attack # 2-begin the attack in the over-arm position by first by thrusting the spear to the right side of the opponentes chest aiming for the pectoral muscle. Then withdraw the thrust once the spear makes contact with the opponent as in Control. Once the attack is executed reset yourself so that you are positioned to attack again.
Attack # 3-begin the attack in the under-arm position by first by thrusting the spear to the left side of the opponentes mid-section, withdrawing the thrust once the spear makes contact with the opponent as in Control. The thrust should be aimed toward the edge of the torso so that any over extended thrusts may glance off to the opponentes side thus preventing injury.
Attack # 4-begin the attack in the under-arm position by first by thrusting the spear to the right side of the opponentes mid-section, withdrawing the thrust once the spear makes contact with the opponent as in Control. The thrust should be aimed toward the edge of the torso so that any over extended thrusts may glance off to the opponentes side thus preventing injury.
Attack # 5-begin the attack in the under-arm position by first rotating the wrist so that the spear blade is horizontal; then thrust the spear to the inside of the opponentes forward leg. Next bring the spear blade in so that it now makes contact with the leg and draw the spear blade back in a cutting motion. Once the attack is executed return to your starting position.
*Note: Never thrust directly to the leg.
Attack # 6-begin the attack in the under-arm position by first by rotating the wrist so that the spear blade is horizontal; then thrust the spear to the outside of the opponentes forward leg. Next bring the spear blade in so that it now makes contact with the leg and draw the spear blade back in a cutting motion. Once the attack is executed return to your starting position.
*Note: Never thrust directly into the leg.
Blocking Attacks to the Head .to block attacks to the head, bring the spear overhead with the spear shaft aligned parallel with the shoulders and extend the spear shaft toward the opponentes blade so that the two meet at a perpendicular angle to block your opponentes attack.
Block # 1-to block attack # 1 or attacks to your upper right side, reposition your shield to the right side of your body with the shield positioned so the shield rim is above shoulder level and cant the shield slightly downward to block your opponentes attack.
Block # 2-to block attack # 2 or attacks to your upper left side, reposition your shield to the left side of your body with the shield positioned so the shield rim is above shoulder level and cant the shield slightly downward to block your opponentes attack.
Block # 3 -to block attack # 3 or attacks to your middle right side, reposition your shield to the middle of your right side and cant the shield slightly downward to block your opponentes attack.
Block # 4 -to block attack # 4 or attacks to your middle left side, reposition your shield to the middle of your left side and cant the shield slightly downward to block your opponentes attack.
Block # 5 .to block attacks to the outside of your forward leg or to your right side leg, rotate your wrist and spear so that the spear head is pointed down and the shaft is vertical. Then quickly move the spear toward the outside to intercept your opponentes blade.
Block # 6 .to block attacks to the inside of your leg or attacks to your left leg, reposition your shield so that it covers both of your thighs from the knee to the hip with the shield canted slightly forward.
Knot Tying
All knots are divided into four classes: Class I.joining knots, Class II.anchor knots, Class III.middle rope knots, and Class IV.special knots. The variety of knots, bends, bights, and hitches is almost endless. These classes of knots are intended only as a general guide since some of the knots discussed may be appropriate in more than one class. The skill of knot tying can perish if not used and practiced. With experience and practice, knot tying becomes instinctive and helps the reenactor in many situations. This section does not cover all known knots but just the most common knots that you are likely to use.
Overhand KnotThe overhand knot is used as a stopper knot, and as the start to several other knots
Tying the Knot
STEP 1 Make a loop, go over then under
and through the loop.
STEP 2. Pull the knot tight working
the rope.
Square Knot.The square knot is used to tie the ends of two ropes of equal diameter. It is a joining knot.
Tying the Knot
STEP 1. Holding one working end in each hand, place the working end in the right hand over the one in the left hand.
STEP 2. Pull it under and back over the top of the rope in the left hand.
STEP 3. Place the working end in the left hand over the one in the right hand and repeat STEP 2.
STEP 4. Dress the knot down and secure it with an overhand knot on each side of the square knot.
Bowline Knot.The bowline is used to tie the end of a rope around an anchor. It may also be used to tie a single fixed loop in the end of a rope. It is an anchor knot.
Tying the Knot
STEP 1Start by making a loop as shown.
STEP 2. Pass the end of the rope through the loop-over then under.
STEP 3. Pass the end around then back through the loop original loop. Tighten the knot evenly by hand and secure the end using a overhand knot.
Clove Hitch -The clove hitch is an anchor knot that can be used in the middle of the rope as well as at the end. The knot must have constant tension on it once tied to prevent slipping. It can be used as either an anchor or middle of the rope knot, depending on how it is tied.
Tying the Knot
STEP 1. Place 76 centimeters of rope over the top of the anchor. Hold the standing end in the left hand. With the right hand, reach under the horizontal anchor, grasp the working end, and bring it inward.
STEP 2. Place the working end of the rope over the standing end (to form a loop). Hold the loop in the left hand. Place the working end over the anchor from 20 to 25 centimeters to the left of the loop.
STEP 3. With the right hand, reach down to the left hand side of the loop under the anchor. Grasp the working end of the rope. Bring the working end up and outward.
Round Turn Two Half Hitches.This knot is used to tie the end of a rope to an anchor, and it must have constant tension. It is an anchor knot.
Tying the Knot
STEP 1. Route the rope around the anchor from right to left and wrap down (must have two wraps in the rear of the anchor, and one in the front). Run the loop around the object to provide 360-degree contact, distributing the load over the anchor.
STEP 2. Bring the working end of the rope left to right and over the standing part, forming a half hitch (first half hitch).
STEP 3. Repeat STEP 2 (last half hitch has a 4 inch pigtail).
STEP 4. Dress the knot down.
Figure Eight Loop-also called the figure-eight-on-a-bight, is used to form a fixed loop in a rope. It is a middle of the rope knot.
Tying the Knot
STEP 1. Form a bight in the rope about as large as the diameter of the desired loop.
STEP 2. With the bight as the working end, form a loop in rope (standing part).
STEP 3. Wrap the working end around the standing part 360 degrees and feed the working end through the loop. Dress the knot tightly.
Prusik -used to put a moveable rope on a fixed rope. This knot can be tied in the middle or end of the rope. It is a specialty knot.
Middle-of-the-Rope Prusik.The middle-of-the-rope Prusik knot can be tied with a short rope to a long rope as follows :
STEP 1. Double the short rope, forming a bight, with the working ends even. Lay it over the long rope so that the closed end of the bight is 12 inches below the long rope and the remaining part of the rope (working ends) is the closest to the climber; spread the working end apart.
STEP 2. Reach down through the 12-inch bight. Pull up both of the working ends and lay them over the long rope. Repeat this process making sure that the working ends pass in the middle of the first two wraps. Now there are four wraps and a locking bar working across them on the long rope.
STEP 3. Dress the wraps and locking bar down to ensure they are tight and not twisted. Tying an overhand knot with both ropes will prevent the knot from slipping during periods of variable tension.
Prusik -used to put a moveable rope on a fixed rope. This knot can be tied in the middle or end of the rope. It is a specialty knot.
End-of-the-Rope Prusik
Tying the Knot
STEP 1. Using an armes length of rope, and place it over the long rope.
Tying the Knot.
STEP 2. Form a complete round turn in the rope.
STEP 3. Cross over the standing part of the short rope with the working end of the short rope.
STEP 4. Lay the working end under the long rope.
STEP 5. Form a complete round turn in the rope, working back toward the middle of the knot.
STEP 6. There are four wraps and a locking bar running across them on the long rope. Dress the wraps and locking bar down. Ensure they are tight, parallel, and not twisted.
STEP 7. Finish the knot with a bowline to ensure that the Prusik knot will not slip out during periods of varying tension.
Chopping Wood
One activity that everyone in the village will invariably end up doing at some point is chopping fire wood. A stockpile of wood should be collected for individual fires from the show communal woodpile as soon as the camp is set up, and stored under cover where possible. This avoids the need to carry large logs around with the public present.
At most shows the supplied fire wood is damp. Take care when chopping damp logs as they can .grabe the axe and tend to be very variable in the ease to split. It is good practice to dry out logs by placing them next to the fire before they are needed to be burnt (or chopped)but periodically check that such logs do not ignite. It is also a good idea to take some dry wood to shows in order to get the fire started.
Before starting to chop wood, choose an axe which you are comfortable with and can physically handle safely. Always check that the axe head is firmly fixed and never use an axe with a loose or suspect head. Periodically check the axe head during use. Also check that the blade and the axe butt or hammer striking point does not have any loose flakes or chips of metal which may come loose.
Always cut wood on a sound and secure chopping block away from the public to avoid injury from flying sticks. If you do not have a dedicated chopping block try to make a temporary block using a large log split and dressed to suite. Wherever possible use a small hand axe and a hammer rather than having to swing a larger axe. This is much more controlled, uses less effort and is much safer.
Try not to hold a log whilst you swing an axe at it, as if you miss or the log slips or the axe bounces you will easily lose fingers; balance a log on end, or if necessary hold the log upright with a stick held at a distancelike tongs and get someone to help if considered safer. If larger baulks of wood need chopping and you need to use a large axe then position the wood and yourself so that should you miss then the axe will strike ground before it strikes you. Always check behind you before swinging an axe, and where possible have a second person ensure that no-one walks behind the axe man.
Sharp axes should be stored towards the back of the living history exhibit away from the public and not stuck in the ground. (there is a risk of tetanus if cut with a dirty axe). Laid flat under a table or stored in a box (preferably locked) are good options. Having an axe buried in a log is also common practice but ensure that the handle is not a trip hazard as the axe may flip out of the log if struck by someone walking into it.
Fire Safety
The use of open fires to cook and or undertake crafts such as dyeing and smithing inherently gives an increased risk of fire within the village. The fact that the village is comprised of fabric and wood tents increases the risk. We must therefore always be on our guard in respect of fire prevention. This is in reality the only option as authentic tents can burn so quickly that once alight it would be rare that the fire can be extinguished before the entire structure had been lost.
Consequently adherence to the health and safety rules in respect of setting out the village and in respect of fire control are paramount. Special attention should be given to open fires and considering their importance they are covered separately in their own section of this document.
The following setting out and fire precaution rules apply :
Under normal camp site H&S regulations, and in order to protect ourselves and the public we must provide adequate fire fighting equipment within the LHE so that should an incident occur then it can be dealt with appropriately.
The following rules apply :-
It is strongly recommended that every LHE unit whether they have a fire or not have a store of fire fighting water. Group members should be made aware of the fire fighting water so that they do not use it for other purposes. Note that water is required per fire .if you have two fires you need 4 gallons of water etc.
Fires within tents have special consideration. For the purposes of the regulations a differentiation is made between enclosed tents and awnings. An awning (or sail) is defined as any structure which is open on at least three sides and is a minimum 1.8m/6ft high. Tents with opening sides are classed as tents when closed and awnings when 3 sides are open.
It is strongly recommended that any fabric structure of any style or kind and which is to be used with any fire, candle or naked flame under or within it has the material treated with fire retardant chemicals. These are commercially available but it should be noted that they may
compromise the waterproofing of the fabric ; if waterproofing is important it is suggested that a test piece is treated first.
If a fire breaks out we need to know what to do about it. Every member should learn what their group uses as the fire-fighting water and where it is normally kept. Also learn where your Herred stores any other fire fighting equipment BUT NOTE .
An incorrectly used fire extinguisher can spread a small contained fire over a large area. Basic fire fighting rules must also be appreciated ; a water extinguisher must not be used on fat fires (from cooking), a CO2 extinguisher should not be used on fabric or wood fires.
Herreds are therefore strongly recommended to have a person trained in general fire fighting using the equipment as described above. In the event of a fire common sense must prevail as appropriate action will ultimately depend upon individual circumstances. Raise the alarm by shouting \FIRE, FIRE, FIRE.. Upon the fire alarm someone from each fire within the LHE should take their fire control water to the scene of the incident and stand by to assist with fire fighting ; but remember that if you have a fire set then someone must stay with that fire, or else put it out before leaving. Anyone not taking water to the incident should retire to a safe distance and help clear the area of public as quickly as possible ; once again remembering to tend your own fire appropriately. It should be considered that the general public will not appreciate that the fire may be real and will assume that it is a part of the show. Even if they do think its real they will most likely want to watch. Be firm and forceful (but not rude or offensive) in getting the public to clear the area.
When fighting a fire use a fire extinguisher on fat/oil fires, water on any fire not electrical or oil based, and use either a fire blanket or a shovel and dirt to smother a fire. If the fire has spread to a tent then adjacent tents should be quickly collapsed so as to form a fire break, providing always that it is safe to do so. In all events prevention or mitigation of personal injury take precedence over loss of goods and equipment.
Once a fire is out assess damages and damp down as necessary. Attend to injuries first and ensure that the incident is reported to the society health and safety officer.
The use of open fires at our events is governed by normal health and safety regulations which are generally common sense. Fires generally must be set on purpose made fire boxes to prevent heat damage to the ground ; remember that many of our shows are on historic sites and, even where they are not, clients donet like us digging up their lawns.
These come in two forms ; either a raised box structure in either wood or steel which lifts the fire a reasonable distance from the ground, or a metal water insulated fire tray type which can be disguised with sand and/or turf to represent a fire pit. If pits are allowed then the show broadsheet or the Runestaffwill give specific permission.
Fire pits must be carefully dug, first remove the turf in large sections and set aside to recover the pit when the show is over. (If it is a dry day then water the turf to keep it alive). Line the perimeter of the pit with large logs or rocks if available. Fully extinguish the fire when finished and remove all rocks and logs before recovering with the original turf, which once replaced should be watered.
Position fires so that they do not constitute a hazard taking regard of how the public will approach your camp. Ensure a minimum 2m/6ft gap to all tents and structures, except for any designated cooking shelter, but in all cases an absolute minimum f 1m/3ft must be maintained. Where possible keep a .naturale 2m/6ft gap between the public and the fire.
If necessary rope off the fire to prevent the public gaining access. Before a fire is set the required fire precautions must be in place and the fire fighting equipment must be present as described above.
Cooking shelters such as sail tents and awnings should be treated with flame retardant and any fire under a shelter must be carefully controlled so that the flames do not reach the fabric, which should be periodically checked for temperature. Remove the shelter if it becomes too hot.
The shelter must be properly erected and remain stable whenever a fire is set under it. If high winds give cause for concern then either the fire must be extinguished or the shelter taken down. The person in charge of the fire should periodically check that the shelter is secure. Once the fire is properly positioned, the shelter over it secure, and the fire fighting equipment and control water etc. is all in place then the fire can be lit.
Make suitable arrangements to have at least one person in charge of the fire at all times. This person must be an adult member.
When the public are present be on guard for children (or even adults) getting too close to the fire or anything which may have become hot such as cooking utensils and suspension chains etc. Keep fabrics and other flammable materials away from fires. Constantly check for cinders especially when the firewood causes spitting. Check your own clothing and hair as well ! Note that natural wool is inherently self extinguishing to a degree and subsequently wearing a wool kyrtle around the fire is safer than linen.
Starting a Fire
Striking fire with flint and steel is not a difficult skill to master, but some basics of the method will make developing it easier. Five essential elements will be discussed, the flint and the steel, char, tinder and wood. After that, the method can be described.
Flint-any piece of flint can be used, but flint of a good quality will make the job easier. The same clear black or gray flint used for gunflints is very good. It needs to be of a large enough size to be gripped tightly in the fingers so as to maintain control while striking the steel. Flakes of flint broken off a spall in making flint artifacts are excellent, as they usually already have a sharp edge and are of good size. The edge does not need to be razor sharp, but should be at least as sharp as a gunflint. The edge can be sharpened using either pressure or percussion flaking.
Steel-any piece of good hard steel can be used, but the traditional steel is in the shape of a "C" with variations. It needs to be large enough to stick some fingers in for a good grip, again for control. Any correctly tempered high-carbon steel will work. Old files make excellent steels, and are frequently used for such.
Char-simply put, the traditional char is cloth or fungus that has been made into charcoal. It is heated at high temperature in the absence of oxygen to drive off flammable solids in the form of gas, leaving a black cloth which catches and holds a spark, smoldering with a hot ember rather than flaming. Making char cloth is not difficult. All you need is a can that won't melt in the fire, and some cloth. The lid needs to fit tightly. Obtain a proper size can and punch a 1/16 inch hole in the lid. The best char cloth is made of heavy gauge cotton cloth. Cut the cloth into squares of two inches, or so, and put them in the can loosely, not stacked tightly. Fill the can, but not so much as to compress the squares. Put the lid on and set the can in an open fire. As the can heats, you will see gases or smoke begin to stream from the hole in the lid. They may catch fire, from time to time. When smoke stops coming from the hole, drag the can off and let it cool. If you open it too quickly, the rush of oxygen will cause the cloth to burst into flame, and you'll have to start over. Once the cloth has cooled, examine it. Good char cloth is black, but still has a lot of strength. It should not fall apart from ordinary handling. If it's more like black ash than black cloth, you cooked it too much.
* Note: This is not to be done in the village during show hours as the tin can is not period accurate; although you may use a walnut shell with a small hole in the top bound with wire in lieu of a tin can so that the technique and materials used are period accurate.
Tinder -anything which will easily catch fire when exposed to the glowing char can be used as tinder, and many different things are used. Twigs, shredded jute twine, wood shaving and tree bark works well. When using tree bark strip it off the tree in thin sheets one-half to one inch in width. Rubbing a bunch of this between the hands shreds it into a mess of very fine fibers, excellent for tinder
Wood -to catch the flame you worked hard to start, any small dry wood will work. Stacking small dry wood so it has plenty of breathing space, and in such a way that I can easily shove my flaming ball of tinder under it. Don't forget that on those wet days, dry kindling can frequently be found on standing dead trees
Laying a Fire -there are several methods for laying a fire for quick fire making
Tepee -arrange tinder and a few sticks of kindling in the shape of a cone. Fire the center. As the cone burns away, the outside logs will fall inward, feeding the heart of the fire. This type of fire burns well even with wet wood.
Lean-to-push a green stick into the ground at a 30 degree angle.
Point the end of the stick in the direction of the wind. Place some tinder (at least a handful) deep inside this lean-to stick. Light the tinder. As the kindling catches fire from the tinder, add more kindling.
Cross-ditch-scratch a cross about 1 foot in size in the ground.
Dig the cross 3 inches deep. Put a large wad of tinder in the middle of the cross. Build a kindling pyramid above the tinder. The shallow ditch allows air to sweep under the fire to provide a draft.
Dropping Sparks.create a birdes nest with tender and lay it on the ground. Place a piece of char in the center of it. Holding the steel in your left hand and close over the char, grasp the flint in your right hand. Strike downward onto the face of the steel with the edge of the flint, causing a scraping, glancing blow at an angle of from 15 to 30 degrees, depending on the shape of your flint. This will knock sparks downward from the steel. The closer the steel is to the char, the hotter the sparks will be when they land on the char, and the better your chances. Once you see a spark catch in the char, and an area of red ember start developing in it, drop the flint and steel, wrap the char up into a bird's nest with the tinder, and begin to blow on it. Once the tinder bursts into flame, place it under your kindling.
Caution: you are making a swiping blow at the edge of that sharp flint, it's possible to cut yourself using this method. While you are learning, you might want to wear a leather glove.
Stealing Fire: a period accurate technique for starting a fire is to scoop up burning coals from an existing fire into an iron ladle and transport it to start your new fire. The key with this technique is that it requires an additional person to block on-coming traffic and to clear the way in order to prevent others from getting burned or accidently starting a fire in the village. Then using the burning coal set it atop your tinder and kindling and blow on the coal until the tender and kindling catches fire.
Food Sanitation
Food storage at a show can be a problem considering that we are away from home, camping, and sometimes there for several days, although such adversities can easily be overcome with the appliance of common sense. Basic food hygiene convention is to keep risk foods cool (below 4oc) and in order to do this within the LHE all that is required is a hiding place for a modern ice chest. If bought frozen, food can be kept sufficiently cool within an ice chest and a block of ice for several days.
Alternatively if food is bought on a day to day basis it can be stored in wooden boxes or lidded buckets. Wood is a reasonable insulator and providing that the box/bucket is kept away from the fire and in the shade then food will readily keep ok for at least a day.
Always follow the standard safety conventions for food as anywhere else. Never store cooked meat in the same cool box and under raw meat, and similarly keep dairy produce away from meats etc. Keeping foods in their sealed packaging as long as possible prevents some cross contamination and can help preserve food for longer. Once food is set out on display before being prepared for consumption keep different food types apart in separate dishes and where practical cover them either with other upturned bowls or cloths kept clean for the purpose. Having color coded embroidery on such cloths will help identify them for specific foodstuffs. Liquids can be decanted into jugs or the like and covered with an upturned bowl.
If in any doubt about any foodstuffs fitness for consumption then err on the side of caution and do not use it. Remember that you are away from home and sometimes at a distance from full medical assistance.
Food preparation follows the same basic day to day modern hygiene rules for handling foodstuffs. Basically keep your hands clean and prepare individual food types separately. Cook everything thoroughly and discard anything which is suspect before, during and after cooking.
Wash your hands before preparing any food and between different food types to prevent cross contamination. Ensure that knives and chopping boards are clean ; ensure that knives are sharp enough for the job at hand. Be careful when handling sharp knives especially with the public and/or children present. Store sharps away from the public and wash/clean after use.
Use separate cutting boards for meats and vegetables, or else wash the board between food types, and sterilize by scalding with boiling water. Always cut up the meat last. If you donet have a chopping board then a makeshift board can be fashioned from firewood; remember to scald the wood before use. If different chopping boards are used on a regular basis then they can be marked or even color coded (with a small paint mark .using non toxic paint) to the relevant use.
Wash vegetables before cutting them up even if they donet appear dirty. Use separate knives to do the cutting, or else again sterilize the blade between food types. This can be done with boiling water from the cauldron or else by running the blade over an open flame, but do not get the blade too hot as this can ruin the temper of the metal. Discard anything that is dropped even if this means no dinner.. Check that cooking pots and cauldrons etc are clean before starting to cook. Once food is cut up and/or prepared it should be placed straight into the cooking pot. If to be stored a short while ensure it is covered and treat as any other stored food as above. When cooking ensure that meats, especially chicken etc, is properly cooked through before serving. Once ready serve hot and do not re-heat anything that has gone cold.
One issue which is often overlooked in the living history villages is security. For example making sure that our equipment doesnet go missing etc. This applies to the actual show as well as the overnight stay. Shows do vary in respect of security risks, and generally the risk is less if we are camped in a secure location such as a museum. Such shows, where the public pays to see us are also less likely to have thieves operating within the public during the day, and experience will in time give you a general feeling about how much \active. security is needed at a show.
We invariably have a good deal of equipment with us in the village; both our modern day to day equipment and our authentic tools and weaponry. Weapons are especially at risk; we know where to get them and how much they cost, whereas the average person has no idea of either. A potential thief may well be tempted in such circumstances to take risks to steal such otherwise unobtainable goods. Subsequently special precautions need to be taken to ensure that things donet go missing. When setting up the camp think defensive and arrange tents so as to channel people down routes that you face onto. Where possible rope or fence off spaces between tents to naturally prevent the public from gaining access to the rear of tents. In this way you can try to keep the public to one side of you which makes controlling things much simpler.
During a show ensure that all tools, weapons, jewellery and other valuables are under constant supervision. When you need to go and do other things, such as take part in the battle or simply go to the latrine, get another re-enactor to look after your kit, or else at least cover displays or if practical remove them to a safe place. Put tools, especially sharps into tool boxes and place next to or in tents generally away from public thoroughfares.
Do not at any time leave a living history camp with either a fire or sharps unmanned. Ask your neighbors to keep an eye on things if necessary and return the favor if asked.
After a show has finished for the day wherever practical lock valuables in your car. Vehicles can be moved to the LHE campsite for most shows making this task easy, but at certain shows vehicles may not be allowed on site, and/or the car parks may be at a prohibitive distance to readily lock everything away. In such circumstances keep as many valuables with you. Otherwise check who is intending to stay in the village rather than going to the pub (there is usually someone) and ask them to keep an eye on things generally. Put all easily carried LHE kit away in tents. If your group has a lot of equipment and nowhere to store it overnight then perhaps you could consider making a small storage tent for group use. Authentic boxes can have authentic locks to better secure valuables; the size of the box obviously determines the size of the valuables. Remember that most thieves are opportunists and will not bother to risk the time to search properly. Subsequently the risk of theft is significantly reduced if things are out of sight, concealed if no-where else under your bedding. Larger items which may have to be left outside of tents could be roped together to make theft more difficult, or perhaps noisy if attempted without knowing that things are roped up. This is a good ploy for shields that can readily be roped through the handles.
First Aid
Every group is required to appoint a First Aid Thegn, who is responsible for advising their group on Society first aid issues and other Health and Safety requirements and the appointed person should wherever possible hold a current approved first aid certificate from a recognized testing body such as the Red Cross or other approved bodies. Each group is required to own a first aid kit suitable for their membership numbers and such kit is usually within the ownership of their first aid thegn. The appointed first aid thegn should maintain the kit as appropriate. Out of date bandages and dressing must not be used. Out of date and used materials etc should be replaced as soon as practicable. First Aid kits must not contain drugs, pills and/or medicines. The first aid thegn must not administer any drugs or medicines in any circumstances, and should not administer any treatment for which he is not qualified. The first aid kit must contain a treatment record book in accordance with prevailing legislation and every treated incident must be recorded in the book. All incidents must be
reported to the Society Health and Safety Officer. In respect of combat injuries the Society Training Thegn must also be advised of the incident causing the injury.
A standard first aid kit should contain but is not limited to the following:
Quantity Description
10 EACravats (40. X 40. muslin cloth)
1 EA1. X 8. Wooden Dowel
10 EA4. X 4. Gauze
1 BoxButterfly Stitches
1 RollMedical Tape
1 BoxAssorted Bandages
1 BottleRehydration Fluid (Pedialite)
4 RollsGauze Wrap
As life happens people will injure themselves from time to time or pre-existing medical conditions may arise requiring immediate medical care. This is a guide to basic life saving procedures to care for the casualty until he/she can receive advanced medical treatment by a medical staff.
Assessing the Casualty
When assessing the casualty check for responsiveness by asking if they are ok and where does it hurt. I the casualty is unconscious check for a pulse at either the neck or wrist as shown below. If pulse is not have a CPR certified person apply resuscitation measures and seek medical aid. If the casualty has a pulse begin feeling the casualtyes limbs and body to check for wounds and blood loss.
Priority of medical care is as follows:
Bleeding-control loss of blood by applying a bandage or tourniquet.
Breathing .open airways and restore breathing.
Shock .treat the casualty for shock.
Once these measures have been taken prepare the casualty for medical evacuation to the nearest medical treatment center.
Opening the Airway -Place one hand on the casualtyes forehead and apply firm, backward pressure with the palm to tilt the head back. Place the fingertips of the other hand under the bony part of the lower jaw and lift, bringing the chin forward. The thumb should not be used to lift the chin
Hot Weather Injuries
Heat injuries are environmental injuries. They may result when a group member is exposed to extreme heat, such as from the sun or from
high temperatures. Sign and symptoms include:
Excessive sweating with pale, moist, cool skin.
Weakness.Nausea (with or without vomiting).
Dizziness.Urge to defecate.
Loss of appetite.Chills (gooseflesh).
Rapid breathing.Confusion.
Tingling of hands and/or feet.Red skin/ hot to touch.
First aid measures.
.Move the casualty to a cool, shady area or improvise shade if none is available.
.Loosen or remove his clothing and shoes; pour water on him and fan him.
.Have him slowly drink at least one bottle of water or other rehydration fluid.
.Elevate his legs.
.If possible, the casualty should not participate in strenuous activity for the remainder of the day.
.Monitor the casualty until the symptoms are gone, or medical assistance arrives.
Cold Weather Injuries
Cold injuries are most likely to occur when conditions are moderately cold, but accompanied by wet or windy conditions. Cold injuries can usually be prevented. Well-disciplined and well-trained group members can be protected even in the most adverse circumstances. They and their leaders must know the hazards of exposure to the cold. They must know the importance of personal hygiene, exercise, care of the feet and hands, and the use of protective clothing. Outward signs of cold injury include discoloration of the skin at the site of injury. In light-skinned persons, the skin first reddens and then becomes pale or waxy white. In dark-skinned persons, grayness in the skin is usually evident. An injured foot or hand feels cold to the touch. Swelling may be an indication of deep injury. Also note that blisters may occur after rewarming the affected parts. Group members should work in pairs (buddy teams) to check each other for signs of discoloration and other symptoms.
First Aid Measures. First aid for cold injuries depends on -
whether they are superficial or deep. Rewarming the affected part using
body heat can adequately treat cases of superficial cold injury. (For example, this can be done by covering cheeks with hands, putting fingertips in armpits, or placing the casualtyes feet under the clothing of a buddy [next to his belly].) The injured part should NOT be massaged, exposed to a fire or stove, rubbed with snow, slapped, chafed, or soaked in cold water. Walking on injured feet should be avoided. Deep cold injury (frostbite) is very serious and requires prompt first aid to avoid or to minimize the loss of parts or all of the fingers, toes, hands, or feet. The sequence for treating cold injuries depends on whether the condition is life-threatening. The first priority in managing cold injuries is to remove the casualty from the cold environment (such as building an improvised shelter).
Treating Lacerations
A laceration is simply a cut to the skin or other tissue and treatment consist of stopping the bleeding and bandaging the wound to prevent infection.
Once the sight of injury has been identified apply a 4. X 4. gauze pads to the wound (use a roll of gauze if the laceration is larger than the gauze pad can cover or use multiple gauze pads overlapped if necessary) and tape down all four sides using medical tape. Next take your cravat and fold it into a triangle and fold into a 3. width joining to or more if greater length is needed. Once your cravat is ready wrap it around the injury covering the gauze bandage 2. above and below the site of injury. After wrapping the cravat tie the tails off at the side of the injury with a square knot and tuck away the tails to prevent them from getting snagged on anything.
Apply direct pressure to the laceration for three to five minutes to stop bleeding, if bleeding continues apply a tourniquet and evacuate the casualty immediately to the nearest medical treatment facility.
Application of a Tourniquet
A tourniquet is a constricting band is only placed around an arm or leg to control severe bleeding.
Improvising a Tourniquet. In the absence of a specially designed tourniquet, a tourniquet may be made from a strong, pliable material, such as gauze or muslin bandages, clothing, or cravats. An improvised tourniquet is used with a rigid stick-like object. To minimize skin damage, ensure that the improvised tourniquet is at least 2 inches wide.
Placing the Improvised Tourniquet.
Place the tourniquet around the limb, between the wound and the body trunk (or between the wound and the heart). Never place it directly over a wound, a fracture, or joint. Tourniquets, for maximum effectiveness, should be placed on the upper arm or above the knee on the thigh.
Applying the Tourniquet.
Step1. Tie a half-knot. (A half-knot is the same as the first part of tying a shoe lace.)
Step 2.Place a stick (or 1. X 8.wooden dowel) on top of the half knot.
Step 3. Tie a square knot over the stick.
Step 4. Twist the stick until the tourniquet is tight around the limb and/or the bright red bleeding has stopped.
Step 5. Fasten the tourniquet to the limb by looping the free ends of the tourniquet over the ends of the stick. Then bring the ends around the limb to prevent the stick from loosening. Tie them together on the side oft he limb.
Step 6. Mark the casualtyes forehead with a \T. and the time of tourniquet application. And evacuate immediately to a medical treatment facility.
Treating Fractures
A fracture is any break in the continuity of a bone. First aid includes immobilizing the fractured part. The basic splinting principle is to immobilize the joints above and below the fracture.
Closed Fracture. A closed fracture is a broken bone that does not break the overlying skin. The tissue beneath the skin maybe damaged. A dislocation is when a joint, such as a knee, ankle, or shoulder, is not in the proper position. A sprain is when the connecting tissues of the joints have been torn. Dislocations and sprains (swelling, possible deformity, and discoloration) should be treated as closed fractures.
Open Fracture. An open fracture is a broken bone that breaks (pierces) the overlying skin. The broken bone may come through the skin or a missile such as a bullet or shell fragment may go through the flesh and break the bone.
NOTE: An open fracture is contaminated and subject to infection.
Indications of a fracture are deformity, tenderness, swelling, pain, inability
to move the injured part, protruding bone, bleeding, or discolored skin at the injury site. A sharp pain when the group member attempts to move the part is also a sign of a fracture.
A fracture is immobilized to prevent the sharp edges of the bone from
moving and cutting tissue, muscle, blood vessels, and nerves. This reduces
pain and helps prevent or control shock. In a closed fracture, immobilization keeps bone fragments from causing an open wound, which can become contaminated and subject to infection.
Procedures for Splinting Suspected Fractures
Before beginning first aid procedures for a fracture, gather whatever splinting materials are available. Ensure that splints are long enough to immobilize the joint above and below the suspected fracture. If possible, use at least four ties (two above and two below the fracture) to secure the splints. The ties should be square knots and should be tied away from the body on the splint. Distal pulses of the affected extremity should be checked before and after the application of the splint.
NOTE: When splinting a limb splint it as it lies, do not try to straighten or realign the limb.
Step 1. If you are splinting an open facture begin by dressing the wound with a roll of gauze and covering it with a cravat.
Step 2. Get two boards or sticks the length of the limb and pad them by wrapping cravats or clothing around the splint. Next take four cravats and fold them into 2-3. widths and tie them onto the splints with a half knot.
Step 3. Tie the splints to the limb by wrapping the cravat around the limb and tie a square knot on top of the splint. The cravat should be tightly wrapped so as to immobilize the limb but not so tight as to create a tourniquet like effect. Check the pulse below the splint sight and adjust the cravats accordingly.
Step 4. Now that the limb is splinted elevate the limb above the heart to reduce swelling .
Step 5. Seek medical attention at your nearest medical treatment facility.
Treating Burns
Burns often cause extreme pain and scarring.
First Aid for Burns
Eliminate the Source of the Burn. The source of the burn must be eliminated before any evaluation of the casualty can occur and first aid
Step 1.Quickly remove the casualty from danger and cover the
thermal burn with any large non-synthetic material, such as a wool blanket. the casualtyes clothing is still on fire, roll the casualty on the ground to
smother (put out) the flames.
Step 2. Expose the Burn. Cut and gently lift away any clothing covering the burned area, without pulling clothing over the burns. Leave in place any clothing that is stuck to the burn. If the casualtyes hands or wrists have been burned, remove jewelry if possible without causing further injury (rings, watches, and so forth) and place in his pockets. This prevents the necessity to cut off jewelry since swelling usually occurs as a result of a burn.
Step 3. Apply a bandage using a roll of gauze and cover the burn area to prevent infection.
Step 4. Treat the casualty for shock.
Step 5. Evacuate the casualty to a medical treatment center.
Treatment for Shock
When treating a casualty, assume that shock is present or will occur shortly. By waiting until actual signs and symptoms of shock are noticeable, the rescuer may jeopardize the casualtyes life.
Position the Casualty. (DO NOT move the casualty or his limbs if suspected fractures have not been splinted.)
Step 1. Move the casualty to shade, if shade is available and the situation permits (Do not move the casualty if neck or back injuries are suspected.)
Step 2. Lay the casualty on his back.
NOTE:A casualty in shock who is experiencing breathing difficulty, may breathe easier in a sitting position. If this is the case, allow him to sit upright, but monitor carefully in case his condition worsens.
Step 3. Elevate the casualtyes feet higher than the level of his heart. Use a stable object (log or rolled up clothing) so that his feet will not slip off.
Step 4. Loosen clothing at the neck, waist, or wherever it may be binding.
Step 5. Prevent chilling or overheating. The key is to maintain body temperature. In cold weather, place a blanket or other like item over him to keep him warm and under him to prevent chilling. In hot weather, place the casualty in the shade and protect him from becoming chilled; however, avoid the excessive use of blankets or other coverings.
Step 6. Calm the casualty. Throughout the entire procedure of providing first aid for a casualty, the rescuer should reassure the casualty and keep him calm. This can be done by being authoritative (taking charge) and by showing self-confidence.
Step 7. Seek medical aid.
NOTE: Food and/or Drink. When providing first aid for shock, DO NOT give the casualty any food or drink. If you must leave the casualty or if he is unconscious, turn his head to the side to prevent him from choking if he vomits.
Basic Tools
There are a numbers of craft projects in this handbook and this section provides an overview of tools that will be used.
Claw hammer is used for driving nails into wood.
Ball peen hammer is used for shaping metal
4 lb sledge hammer is used for shaping metal.
Pliers with cutter is used to hold items, cut wire and nails and to crimp metal.
Anvil serves as a base to shape metal and rivet on.
Propane torch is used for soldering and to heat metal to aid in shaping.
Hole saw with mandrel is used for cutting circular holes in wood.
A paddle bit or spade bit is used to drill larger diameter holes into wood.
There are two common types of files: metal files and wood rasp and both are used to remove stock from the project.
Drill are used bore holes in wood and metal.
Jigsaws are used to cut curves and rounded shapes.
Circular saws are used to make straight cuts.
Dishing Stump and Planishing Stake
A dishing stump is used to curve and shape steel by hammering sheet metal into the depression which will give it a curved shape but leaves dimples in the surface. A planishing stake is a stake with a rounded top that is used to smooth out the surface and remove the dimples left behind from dishing the metal.
A dishing stump is made by taking an elbow height tree stump and using a chisel to make a 4. diameter by 2. deep concave depression. A planishing stake can be made by taking a trailer ball hitch and mounting it onto your sump by first drilling a hole for it into the stump and then screwing into place.
Step 1 Supplies.
Lets start with what you'll need.:5 pound anvil , metal punch/ drill, side cutting pliers, ball peen hammer, two pieces of metal to rivet together and a roofing nail. You don't need to use these tools specifically. a drill works as good as a punch, and the anvil can be replaced with a brick.
Step 2 Preparing to Rivet
Take the two pieces of metal and drill or punch a hole the same size as your nail where you want to rivet the two pieces of metal together. Now insert the nail through both holes.Once your nail is through both pieces of metal you'll need to cut off the extra, you'll want to have about 1/2 the width of the nail sticking out of the hole. See the picture an example and cut off the excess with the side cutting pliers.
Step 3 Peening the Rivet
Begin by lightly hammering around the edge of the nail, mushrooming out the edge and creating a point in the center. Next hammer down the point in the center of the nail and your rivet head is formed.
Constructing a Wedge Tent
The wedge tent is your typical Viking tent and is fairly easy to make 1-2 person tent.
Constructing the Frame
Step 1. Cut four 6e length 2. X 4. boards for parts A, two 64. length 2. X 4. boards for parts B and three 92. length 2. X 4. boards for parts C.
Step 2. Using a 2. hole saw drill a hole 2. in from the end on parts B at both ends. On parts A mark and drill holes with the 2. hole saw at 2. and 62..
Step 3. On parts C mark and cut with a circular saw 1. in from the sides for the last 4. at each end of the board which should leave 1-1/2. X 1-1/2. X 4. peg protruding at each end of the board.
Step 4. Mark .. in from the end of each peg on part C and drill a 1. deep by .. diameter hole. Next take .. diameter wooden dowel and cut six 2. lengths.
Sewing the Tent
Step 1. Start with seven yards of 60. wide a heavy canvas or linen and cut two 84. X 60. panels, followed by four right angle triangles with a base of 30. and a height of 52.. The cut two 14. X 60. panels.
Step 2. Sew your two 84. X 60. panels together so that you have an 84. X 120. panel.
Step 3. Hem the 52. and 30. sides of the triangle panels. Then sew the triangle panels to your 84. X 120 panel so that when complete it forms an equilateral triangle.
Sewing the Tent Cont.
Step 4. Hem your 14. X 84. panels along the 14. side and sew them to the 84. side of the 84. X 120 panel. These will serve as sleeves for part C of your tent frame to slide through.
Step 5. sew four button holes along the 52. side of your triangle panels. Next cut sixteen 12. lengths of leather cord or jute twine and sew one to each button hole for door ties.
Assembling the Wedge Tent
Step 1. Begin by sliding part C through the sleeves of the tent and lay one piece of part C center under the tent.
Step 2. Beginning with part B as the base and parts A as the sides of your triangle, slide parts C through their corresponding holes in parts A and B and lock in place with the .. x 2. wooden dowels.
Step 3. Tie your ties shut and your tent is ready for use.
Constructing a Geteld Tent
A Geteld tent is your standard Saxon style tent.
Sewing the Tent
Step 1. Start with 320. of 60. wide heavy canvas or linen and fold in two. Cut the following panels: Panel two is 60. wide by 82. long, Panel 3 has a base of 30. and a height of 78., if Panel 3 is cut accurately then it should leave Panel 1 as an isosceles triangle with a base of 60. and a height of 78..
You should end up with the following:
2 large Isosceles triangles (piece #1) -these will form the back bell-end.
2 "butterflies" (piece #2) -these will form the tent sides.
8 right-angle triangles (piece #3) -Six of these will form the front flaps.
Sewing the Tent Cont.
Step 2. Stitch together the two piece #2s along the long edge. Open out and finish seam with a run and fell stitch.
Step 3. Stitch together the two piece #1s along 1es long edge. Open out and finish seam. Stitch together 2 of the right-angle triangles (piece #3) along the selvedge (finished edge of the fabric). Open out and finish seam. Stitch a third triangle on to the side of the panel, matching long edges, as shown. Open out and finish seam.
Sewing the Tent Cont.
Step 4. Repeat the last two steps with three more right-angle triangles (piece #3), taking care to "mirror" them so you have a right side and a left side. The two selvedge pieces will form the overlaps of the entrance flaps.
Sewing the Tent Cont.
Step 5. Insert the bell-end (#1) into one end of the tent body (#2). Stitch, matching bottom corners. There will be a gap at the top, which will need to be hemmed. Take one of the front flaps (Three piece #3s). Making sure all the seams are on the same side, attach it to the front end of the tent body. Repeat with the other flap, taking care to "mirror" the two sides so the selvedges form a neat overlap.
Lay the pieces out before you begin to sew, to be sure you've positioned them correctly!
Step 6. Turn the tent the right way out and stitch carefully along the line shown to form the ridge pole casing, leaving 2 gaps for the upright poles. Mark the line with chalk first, and make sure the casing isn't too tight.
Step 7. Hem the ridge pole sleeve edges, and the bottom edge of the tent.
Sewing the Tent Cont.
Step 5. Using 10 ounce leather cut eight .. X 10. leather strip for tent peg loops and sew onto the tent as shown below.
Step 6. Attach door ties to the door flap by taking four 12. lengths of jute twine and tie an overhand knot at each end. Next stitch the ties onto both sides of the door flaps as shown below with a whip stitch.
Constructing the tent Frame
Step 1. Using a 1-1/4. X 10e pole for the ridge pole, insert it into the ridge pole sleeve, and using tent pegs secure the base of the tent . Next have two people one at each end stand the tent up and mark where the gap in the ridge pole sleeve occurs on the ridge. Also at this time measure the height of the ridge pole to the ground and cut your supporting legs out of 1-1/4. dowel according to your measurement.
Step 2. Drill a 3/8. diameter hole through the ridge pole . Next drill a 3/8. diameter hole 1. deep into both supporting legs and glue a 3/8. X 2. wooden dowel into your supporting legs. Once the glue has dried insert the supporting legs into the ridge pole and your tent should be ready for use.
Constructing a Lean-To
Step 1. Start with a 84. X 60. piece of linen, followed by four right Then cut a 14. X 60. panels.
Step 2. Hem the sides of your 84. X 60. piece of linen and hem the two 14. side of your 14. X 60. panel.
Step 3. Fold in the 60. long side of you r 14. X 60. panel and sew it onto your 84. X 60. panel to create a sleeve.
Step 4. Using 10 ounce leather cut four.. X 10. leather strip for tent peg loops and sew onto the tent as shown below.
Step 5. Cut a 92. length of a 1-1/4. wooden closet rod.
Step 6. Cut two 54. branches with a \Y. shaped fork at one end to serve as shelter-half support poles.
Step 7. Cut eight 2. X 1. X 10. pieces of wood. The cut a notch at the top and cut the bottom into a \V. shape to serve as tent stakes.
Lean-To Setup.
Step 1. Using a wooden mallet hammer four tent stakes into the four tent peg loops on the shelter-half.
Step 2. Insert the 92. X 1-1/4. wooden pole through the shelter-half sleeve and rest it on your two shelter-half support poles.
Step 3. Using .. sisal rope tie one end around the 92. X 1-1/4. pole and \Y. shaped fork of the shelter-half support pole with an end-of-the-line bowline knot and tie the other end to a tent stake as shown below. Repeat process for all four front tent stakes. Your Lean-To is now ready for use.
Constructing a Shelter
Step 1. Select a good spot to build your shelter. Build in a fringe area, neither in the center of a field nor in a dense thicket, but somewhere between these areas. Choose an area at least 50 yards from a body of water, as evaporating water tends to add extra chill to the air.
Step 2. Find a fallen tree or a large or a long rock to build your shelter against. You can also tie a branch horizontally between two trees a few feet off the ground. There are many ways to make a shelter; the important thing is that you have a sturdy brace to lean your structure against.
Step 3. Lean stout sticks along the horizontal brace of your shelter. Crawl beneath them to make sure there is enough room to sleep under. There shouldn't be too much extra room, but it should be long enough to cover you completely.
Step 4. Pile smaller branches on top of your stout branches, leaving only an opening at either end exposed.
Step 5. Pile vegetation -moss, leaves, pine needles, dried fern or whatever nature makes available on top of your structure to water proof it.
Step 6. Create a bed of dry vegetation on the ground for insulation. To lay on using pine needle and dry ferns. Avoid green/wet vegetation as the moisture from the vegetation will rise up and make you damp.
Constructing a Fire Box
A fire box is a must have for any Living History Exhibit and is a simple piece of furniture to produce.
Step 1. Cut two 12. X 1. X 36. boards, two 12. X 1. X 34. boards from 12. X 1. boards and one 36. X 36. piece of wood from a 1. thick plywood sheet.
Step 2. Using drywall nails, nail the four boards together to form a box.
Step 3. Nail the 36. X 36. piece of plywood to the bottom of the box.
Step 4. Line the inside boards with 26 gauge sheet metal that is cut into 11. wide strips and nailed to the boards to prevent them catching on fire.
Step 5 . Cut two 36. long 4. X 4. boards to set underneath your fire box to raise it off the ground.
Step 6. Fill the box with 1-2. of sand or other soil before laying your fire.
* Note:boards may be either 1. or .. in width, adjust plans accordingly.
Constructing a Cooking Tripod
Tripods are a camp necessity for cooking and below is a simple design that is easy to make.
Step 1. Take 3/8. X 48. round steel stock piece and using an anvil and sledge hammer bend the top 14. as shown below.
Step 2. Using a sledge hammer and anvil flatten the last inch at both ends of the tripod leg. Then drill a hole in the top end and using a cold chisel and a hammer split the bottom of the tripod leg so that it has a three forked foot. Using pliers bend each toe of the forked foot into a different direction. Repeat this process until you have three such tripod legs.
Step 3. Take 3/8. round stock steel and cut an 8. length. Then use a metal file, file away the top 2. until it is 1/8. diameter and bend the bottom 4. into a hook.
Step 4. Take .. round steel stock and using a jigsaw with a fine tooth metal cutting blade cut four 8. lengths of steel. Then using an anvil and ball peen hammer bend the 8. length of steel into an \S. shape starting with the middle bends first. Repeat this process until you have four S hooks.
Step 5. Insert the 1/8. diameter portion of the suspension hook through the hole at the end of the three tripod legs. Then cut off the excess portion of the suspension hook protruding out of the top of the tripod leg and using a ball peen hammer to rivet the suspension hook to all three tripod legs.
Step 6. Connect your S hooks so that they make a chain then attach your chain to the suspension hook on the legs.
Constructing a Cooking Pot
Cooking pots are a camp necessity for cooking and below is a simple design that is easy to make.
Step 1. Take 24 gauge steel sheet metal and using a jigsaw with a metal cutting blade cut out four panels as shown on the pattern on the following page measuring 7. across at the base and 9-1/2. in length. Then cut a 2. X 28. strip of sheet metal.
Step 2. Using a ball peen hammer and a dishing stump form the four panels to shape and use a ball peen hammer and planishing stake to smooth out the surface of the panels.
Step 3. Drill a hole every 1. along the side of the first panel then lay your second panel on the inside with a 1. overlap and mark and drill your holes based off of the measurements of the first panel. Repeat process for all four panels.
Step 4. Lay the second panel on the inside of the first panel with a 1. overlap so that the holes align and rivet the two panels together. Repeat the process for all four panels.
Step 5. Take your 2. X 28. strip of sheet metal and bend it to shape so that it will form a top band around the cooking pot. Mark and drill a hole every 1. along the top rim of the cooking pot, then wrap your 2. X 28. top band around the rim of the cooking pot and mark and drill your holes based off of the holes in the cooking pot rim. Once all holes have been drilled rivet the top band to the cooking pot.
Step 6. Using a lead free solder and a blow torch to solder over all seams and rivet holes. Be sure to apply soldering flux first as this will give you a better bond. Fill with water, inspect for leaks and repeat soldering as necessary.
Step 7. Cut two 4. lengths of .. round stock steel and bend it into a \V. shape. Take a ball peen hammer and anvil and flatten the last 1. of the two \V. shaped pieces then drill a hole at each end and rivet the two \V. shaped pieces to the rim of the cooking pot.
Step 8. Cut 30. length of .. steel rod and bend it into a \U. shape. Then bend the ends back into a \U. and insert into the two \V. shaped pieces on the rim of the cooking pot to serve as a handle.
Constructing a Skillet
Skillets are useful cooking a number dishes enjoyed in a village as well as for baking bread.
Step 1. Our skillet is constructed by cutting out a 10. diameter disc from 16 gauge sheet metal using a jigsaw with a fine tooth metal blade.
Step 2. Use a ball peen hammer and a dishing stump to raise a .. lip on the outside of the disc. Once you have completed raising your lip file away any rough or high spots on the rim.
Step 3. Drill a hole in the center of your disc. Then take a 1/8. X 1. X 30. piece of steel flat stock and drill that line up with the first two holes in the disc.
Step 4. Use a single rivet to attach the disc to the piece of flat stock.
Step 5. Drill a 1. hole at the end of the handle and tie a loop of jute twine or leather cord through the hole so that you can hang your skillet when not in use.
Step 6. Sand the inside of the skillet to remove any factory coating off of the metal, wash and oil and your skillet is ready for use.
*Note: A second rivet may be added if the first is unstable.
Constructing a Stool
Seats are required for many projects and sometimes it is just nice to be able to sit down. Our example is based off the Lund find.
Step 1. Take a 2. X 12. board and cut a 24. long piece.
Step 2. Mark out a general \D. shape on the board and cut it out using a jigsaw with a coarse tooth wood blade.
Step 3. Using a 1. paddle drill bit drill three holes as shown below, ensuring that they are drilled at an angle so that when the legs are inserted the legs should cant slightly outwards.
Step 4. Take 1-1/4. diameter wooden dowel and cut three 20. lengths to serve as the legs.
Step 5. Using a wood rasp file the top 1-1/2. of each leg to a 1. diameter.
Step 6. Once complete inset the three legs into the stool base and use the wood rasp to remove any high spots projecting beyond the stool base.
Constructing a Bench
Benches are nice to have so that you can sit down as a group and enjoy a proper feast.
Step 1. Take a 2. X 12. board and cut a 72. long piece.
Step 2. Using a 1. paddle drill bit drill three holes at each end as shown below, ensuring that they are drilled at an angle so that when the legs are inserted they should cant slightly outwards.
Step 3. Take 1-1/4. diameter wooden dowel and cut six 20. lengths to serve as the legs.
Step 4. Using a wood rasp file the top 1-1/2. of each leg to a 1. diameter.
Step 5. Once complete inset the legs into the bench and use the wood rasp to remove any high spots of the legs projecting beyond the bench base.
Constructing a Table
Tables are nice to have so that you can sit down as a group and enjoy a proper feast.
Step 1. Take a 1. X 12. board and cut a three 72. long pieces.
Step 2. Take a 2. X 4. board and cut two 36. long pieces.
Step 3. Using a 1. paddle drill bit drill a hole 2. from each end of the
2. X 4. board as shown below. Drill the holes so that when the legs are inserted they will cant outward slightly so that the table will be more stable on uneven surfaces.
Step 4. Using a .. drill bit drill holes at 6., 18. and 30. on the two 2. X 4. boards. Then drill .. holes centered and 2. from the end of each 1. X 12. board.
Step 5. Take a .. wooden dowel and cut six 2-1/4. lengths to serve as tree nails and using wood glue and the tree nails attach the three 1. X 12. boards to the two 2. X 4. boards as shown below.
Step 6. Take 1-1/4. diameter wooden dowel and cut four 30. lengths to serve as the legs.
Step 7. Using a wood rasp file the top 1-1/2. of each leg to a 1. diameter.
Step 8. Once complete inset the legs into the table.
Constructing a Chest
Storage is always needed at any LHE often times to hide modern items in order to keep them close at hand and what better way than a chest that can double as seating.
Step 1. Begin by cutting one 12. X 1. X 34. board for part A, one 10. X 1. X 32. board for part B, two 12. X 1. X 34. boards for parts C and two 12. X 1. X 10 \ boards for parts D.
Step 2. Take a .. dowel and forty-two 2. long pieces to serve as tree nails.
Step 3. Drill four .. holes .. from the bottom edge of parts D. Drill four .. holes .. from the side and nine .. holes .. from the bottom edge of parts C.
* Note:boards may be either 1. or .. in width, adjust plans accordingly.
Step 4. Take parts C and D and set them together so that the corner form a right angle with part D to the inside. Next using the four holes on the side of part C as a guide mark and drill four 1. deep by .. diameter holes at the end of the board on part D. Then join parts C and D together with four tree nails and wood glue. Repeat this process for all four corners.
Step 5. Take part B and insert into the bottom of your box and mark and drill 1. deep by .. diameter holes based off of the holes in parts C and D. Next take your remaining twenty-six tree nails and some wood glue and part B to parts C and D.
Step 6 A. Take a 1. wide strip of 10 ounce weight leather and cut two 12. lengths to serve as leather strap hinges. Next use six to ten tacks and attach your two strap hinges to parts A and B 6. from each end for a poorer chest.
Step 6 B. To make a higher class chest use a set of Mastermyr hinges instead of leather hinges. To make Mastermyr hinges cut two 1. X 7. pieces of flat steel stock using a jigsaw. Then using a jigsaw cut out a
3. X ..long tail for the top part of the hinge, then cut out the circular portion for the eyelet on the bottom part of the hinge. Drill a .. hole into the eyelet of the bottom hinge. Insert the tail of the top hinge into the eyelet of the bottom hinge and using pliers bend the tail of the top hinge back onto itself . Drill four holes into both the top and bottom hinges the same size as the nail that you will be using. Next use
eight nails mount each Mastermyr hinge .
Repeat process for second hinge.
Making a Leather Water-Bucket
Water buckets are a camp essential and every camp should have at least two buckets for water storage for fire prevention.
Step 1. Take 2 ounce vegetable tanned leather and cut a 10.diameter circle. Then cut a 32 \ X 12. panel of leather and a 1. X 24. strip of leather. Be sure to soak your leather for an hour prior to working to remove tanning chemicals and to make the leather more pliable.
Step 2. Using a saddle stitch sew the 32 . X 12. panel together along the 12. side with a stitch every .. creating the body of the bucket.
Step 3. Using a saddle stitch sew the body of the bucket to the 10. diameter disc with a stitch every ...
Step 4. Fold over the top .. of the bucket rim and sew to the bucket body so that the hemmed edge reinforces the bucket.
Step 5. Sew the 1. X 24. strip of leather to the top rim of the bucket to serve as a handle.
Step 6. Heat some beeswax and let it run over all seams and stitching inside the bucket to prevent leaks.

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